Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

Abstract

Differential response of ajuga (Ajuga reptans), wintercreeper (Euonymus fortunei), and dwarf burning bush (Euonymus alatus 'Compacta') to root- and shoot-applied isoxaben.

Abstract

Hydroponics and sand culture studies evaluated the effects of isoxaben rate (0.84, 1.69, and 3.39 kg/ha) and application type (root only, shoot only, and root plus shoot) on the growth of ajuga, wintercreeper, and dwarf burning bush. Similar responses were exhibited by the three species tested in both hydroponics and sand culture studies. Based on shoot weight reductions, dwarf burning bush was one to three times more sensitive than wintercreeper, which was the most tolerant of the three species, and ajuga was five to 20 times more sensitive than wintercreeper. Isoxaben applied to the root system at all three rates injured ajuga root tips and foliage and reduced root weight by approximately 40% and shoot weight by 20 to 30%. Isoxaben applications to ajuga foliage damaged the roots and leaves and caused over 30% reductions in shoot and root weights at the highest rate tested. Isoxaben applied to dwarf burning bush roots caused less than 20% shoot injury, reduced root weight by 8 to 18%, and reduced shoot weight by less than 10%. Application to dwarf burning bush foliage caused 20 to 30% injury, but only slight reductions in root and shoot weights were observed. No visible injury was observed in wintercreeper from any isoxaben application. However, root treatment reduced wintercreeper root weight by approximately 15%, and shoot treatment reduced shoot weight by 6 to 10% at the highest isoxaben rate tested. Application of isoxaben to both roots and foliage of wintercreeper resulted in similar reductions in shoot and root weights compared to root or shoot exposure alone. Shoot application to wintercreeper affected root growth, and root treatment reduced shoot growth.