Invasive Species Compendium

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Abstract

Waxes and lipids associated with the external waxy structures of nymphs and pupae of the giant whitefly, Aleurodicus dugesii.

Abstract

The nymphs and pupae of the giant whitefly, Aleurodicus dugesii, produce large quantities of external lipids, both as waxy particles and as waxy filaments. The nymphs and pupae extrude filaments from two dorsal rows of five pores each. Filaments can attain lengths of 5-8 cm. The external lipids of nymphs and pupae consist largely of long-chain aldehydes, alcohols, acetate esters and wax esters. Hydrocarbons are minor components. Soon after hatching, the nymph produced an unidentified waxy fringe extruded laterally from its margin. After moulting to the second instar, long, hollow, waxy esters (89%), mainly C44, C46 and C60. Associated with formation of the filaments were waxy particles in the shape of curls, which peeled off of the extruding filaments. Similar but more tubular-shaped curls were also produced by numerous lateral pores so that, eventually, the curls completely camouflaged the nymph. The major lipid class of the curls was wax esters (50%), mainly C44 and C46. The cuticular surface lipids of the nymphs were mainly long-chain aldehydes (43%) and wax esters (27%). Unsaturated fatty acid moieties constituted 2 and 19% of the wax esters of curls and nymph cuticular surface lipids, respectively. The major lipid classes of pupae and of their palisade were long-chain aldehydes and alcohols. No unsaturated wax esters were detected in the filaments, but 30% of pupal and 21% of palisade surface wax esters were unsaturated in their fatty acid moieties, 16:1, 18:1 and 20:1.