Some species of Bipolaris and Curvularia protuberata in wild gramineae from northern Italy (Lombardia).
During May and November 1996, the presence and biogeographical distribution of fungal species belonging to the genus Curvularia and the complex 'Helminthosporium' were established in the main wild Gramineae [Poaceae] present in 4 agricultural zones of Lombardia, Italy, near to the cities of Milan, Bergamo, Cremona and Voghera. From the 21 gramineae collected, 79 fungi were isolated from 18 of them. More than 98% of the isolated species were anamorphs of Cochliobolus, Bipolaris australiensis [C. australiensis] (30.4%), C. sativus (27.8%) and C. cynodontis (22.8%) being the most representative. The highest percentage of fungal isolates were found in Voghera and Cremona (33-29%) and the lowest in Milano (13%). Ears and leaves were the most affected by fungal colonization in summer whereas, the culm became affected in the autumn. 3 species groups (A,B,C) were created according to their degree of fungal colonization together with their temporal and spatial distribution. Group A showed the least colonization, B intermediate and C the highest levels of colonization. In the latter, Cynodon dactylon, Hordeum murinum and Poa pratensis, were the most representative gramineae. The potential of these infected gramineae as reservoirs of fungal pathogens of agricultural crops is discussed.