Infectious and tropical diseases in Oman: a review.
Important, notifiable infections in Oman include tuberculosis, brucellosis (endemic in Dhofar), acute gastroenteritis, and viral hepatitis: 4.9% of the adults are seropositive for hepatitis B surface antigen and approximately 1.2% for hepatitis C virus. Infection with human immunodeficiency virus is uncommon, and leprosy, rabies and Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever are rare. Between 1990 and 1998, the incidence of malaria (>70% due to Plasmodium falciparum) decreased from 32 700 to 882 cases. Cutaneous and visceral leishmaniasis (caused by Leishmania tropica and L. infantum, respectively) and Bancroftian filariasis (Wuchereria bancrofti) occur sporadically. Intestinal parasitism (helminths and protozoa) ranges from 17 to 42% in different populations. A solitary focus of schistosomiasis mansoni (Schistosoma mansoni) in Dhofar has been eradicated. There are major programs for the elimination of tuberculosis, leprosy and malaria, and to control brucellosis, leishmaniasis, sexually transmitted diseases, trachoma, acute respiratory infection in children, and diarrhoeal diseases. The Expanded Program on Immunization was introduced in 1981: diphtheria, neonatal tetanus, and probably poliomyelitis have been eliminated.