Determining the relative roles of different aphid species as vectors of cucumber mosaic and bean yellow mosaic viruses in lupins.
Glasshouse and field studies were carried out to determine the relative roles of different colonising and non-colonising aphid species as vectors of two non-persistently transmitted viruses, cucumber mosaic cucumovirus (CMV) and bean yellow mosaic potyvirus (BYMV) in narrow-leafed lupin (Lupinus angustifolius) crops in Australia. The abilities of nine different aphid species in transmitting CMV from infected to healthy lupins and BYMV from infected subterranean clover (Trifolium subterraneum) to healthy lupins were compared in the glasshouse using 5-10 min acquisition access feeds. The percentage transmission efficiencies found with lupin-colonising aphid species were (CMV/BYMV): Acyrthosiphon kondoi (6/15), Aphis craccivora (10/14) and Myzus persicae (11/77). With non-colonising species the respective efficiencies were: Brachycaudus rumexicolens (0.9/0), Lipaphis erysimi (4/8), Rhopalosiphum maidis (9/6), R. padi (5/5), Sitobion miscanthi (2/11) and Therioaphis trifolii (4/5). When flying aphids were trapped in the field in four successive years (1993-96) on vertical nets downwind of virus-infected lupins, 13 different species were caught at a "wheatbelt" site and 18 at an urban irrigated site. Of 2833 aphids caught at the "wheatbelt" site, 64 transmitted CMV to lupin test plants. At the irrigated site, numbers of aphids transmitting CMV/ numbers caught were 12/186 while the corresponding numbers for BYMV were 11/727. M. persicae, A. kondoi and R. padi transmitted both viruses, while additional vectors of CMV found were A. craccivora, Acyrthosiphon pisum, B. rumexicolens, L. erysimi, R. insertum, T. trifolii and Toxoptera citricidus. Averaged over four years, A. kondoi accounted for 50% of CMV transmissions at the "wheatbelt" site, M. persicae for 16% and R. padi for 22%, and these three species were caught in the greatest numbers, comprising 28, 13 and 37%, respectively, of the total catch. At the irrigated site, R. padi accounted for half the CMV transmissions, while R. padi and A. kondoi together accounted for most of the BYMV transmissions. R. padi, A. kondoi, M. persicae and T. citridus were the most common aphid species at this site. These findings suggest that M. persicae, A. kondoi and R. padi are the aphid species likely to be most important as vectors of CMV and BYMV in narrow-leafed lupins grown in Mediterranean-type climatic zones of southern Australia.