Microorganisms associated with ginger in Sikkim.
Disease surveys were conducted in the main ginger (Zingiber officinale) growing areas in Sikkim, India. Thirty nine microorganisms were found associated with ginger either in the field or in storage including 2 nematode species (Meloidogyne incognita and Pratylenchus coffeae) and 1 bacterium (Pseudomonas solanacearum [Ralstonia solanacaerum]). Fusarium oxysporum, Pythium aphanidermatum, Ralstonia solanacearum and Pratylenchus coffeae were potent pathogens causing yellows/Fusarium wilt, soft rot, bacterial wilt and dry rot, respectively in the field or in storage. Among the leaf spot causing pathogens, Leptosphaeria zingiberi was the most serious. In storage, species of Fusarium were dominant followed by Botryodiplodia, Memnoniella echinata and Stachybotrys atra.