Checklist of the parasites of fishes of the Philippines.
This checklist summarizes information on the parasites of Philippine fishes contained in the world literature, from the earliest known record (de Blainville 1822) to the end of 1996. Information is presented in the form of parasite-host and host-parasite lists. 201 named species of parasites are included, distributed among the higher taxa as follows: Apicomplexa - 1, Ciliophora - 16, Mastigophora - 2, Microspora - 1, Myxozoa - 9, Trematoda - 90, Monogenea -22, Cestoda - 6, Nematoda - 20, Acanthocephala - 5, Mollusca - 1, Branchiura - 2, Copepoda - 21 and Isopoda - 5. Many records of parasites not identified to species level are also included. Parasites have been reported from 172 of the more than 2030 species of marine and freshwater fish occurring in Philippine waters, and from another 17 species of freshwater aquarium fish examined in the Philippines but not found in natural waters. The parasite-host list is organized on a taxonomic basis and provides information for each parasite species on the environment (fresh water, brackish water, marine), the location (site of infection) in or on its host(s), the species of host infected, the known geographic distribution (by island) in the Philippines, and the published sources for each host and locality record. The host-parasite list is organized according to the taxonomy of the hosts, and includes for each host the English language and local (typically Tagalog) common names, the environment (fresh water, brackish water, marine), the status in the Philippines (native or exotic), and information on the known Philippine distribution of the parasites. Both lists are accompanied by remarks and footnotes, giving specific information on points of systematics, nomenclature, possible misidentifications, introductions, pathogenicity, etc. Citations are included for all references and a supplementary list of references contains other literature on Philippine fish parasites. Parasite and host indices are included. The following new taxonomic combinations are made: Prosorhynchoides philippinorum comb. nov., for Bucephaloides philippinorum; Prosorhynchoides sibi comb. nov., for Bucephaloides sibi; Genolinea awa comb. nov., for Pseudobunocotyla awa; and Procamallanus (Spirocamallanus) philippinensis comb. nov., for Spirocamallanus philippinensis.