Geographical variation of the morphological characteristics of Pinus bungeana seeds and cones.
Sixteen morphological characteristics of the seeds and cones of P. bungeana were been studied in different (Chinese) provenances. No significant differences were found among the morphologic characteristics of individual trees from the same provenance, while there were obvious differences between provenances, except in length of the seeds. Cone height and weight showed a S.-N. variation at same longitude, and seed thickness, cone height and diameter ratio, and number of seeds/cone showed a W.-E. variation at the same latitude. SW-NE variation was exhibited for cone width of cone and the proportion of seed coat. There were no significant trends in geographical variation of seed and cone colour, the number of scales on individual cones and 1000-seed weight. These were controlled by the amount of solar radiation, the length of frost-free period, temperature in the coldest month and altitude.