Trypanosomiasis: a threat to cattle production in Ethiopia.
Blood samples from 14 193 cattle of various ages and different sexes from 7 tsetse-infested and 2 tsetse-free areas in Ethiopia were examined for trypanosomes by the dark ground buffy coat technique. Anaemia was estimated by measuring packed cell volume (PCV). The overall prevalence of trypanosomiasis was 13.19%. The prevalence in tsetse-infested and -free areas were 17.67% and 8.71%, respectively. In the former study site, Trypanosoma congolense (58.5% of infections), T. vivax (31.28%) and T. brucei (3.53%) were identified. More than 99% of infections in tsetse-free areas were of T. vivax. Generally, PCV values ranged between 16 and 25% in infected animals. It is suggested that there is a need to control trypanosomiasis in tsetse-free zones, as infections in these areas pose a significant threat to the large highland livestock population of Ethiopia.