A survey on the occurrence and flight periods of fruit fly species (Diptera: Tephritidae) in a fruit growing area in southwest Nicaragua, 1994/95.
McPhail traps baited with hydrolysed protein and borax to trap mainly female fruit flies, Jackson traps baited with trimedlure to attract male Ceratitis capitata, and Jackson traps baited with cuelure and methyl eugenol to trap Bactrocera spp., were hung in fruit trees at 50 sites and serviced weekly from June, 1994 to March, 1995, over an area of 350 km2 in Nicaragua. Samples of fruit were collected and kept separately to rear adult fruit flies and their hymenopterous parasitoids from known host plants. No Bactrocera spp. was trapped or reared from fruit at any site. Ceratitis capitata was caught in high numbers in McPhail and Jackson traps at nearly all sites in the dry season, attacking coffee berries and fruit of Citrus species. Toxotrypana curvicauda was attracted to the food lure McPhail traps in low numbers and was widespread throughout the year, attacking papaya [pawpaws]. Of 29 Anastrepha species known to occur south of Mexico and north of Panama, ten were found during the study, occurring mainly in the rainy season; only two of them were trapped frequently and reared from collected fruit. Anastrepha obliqua proved to be the second most abundant fruit fly species, with a population peak from June to October when its preferred host plants Mangifera indica (mangoes), Spondias mombin and Psidium friedrichsthalianum were ripening. Anastrepha striata, trapped at 45 sites, occurred from June to November, attacking P. friedrichsthalianum and P. guajava. Sampled fruit of a further eight species in seven families were not attacked by tephritid flies. Parasitism by the introduced braconid Diachasmimorpha longicaudata [Biosteres longicaudatus] was very low (3.7% in C. capitata, 2.7% in A. obliqua and 5.3% in A. striata).