Applications of integrated control methods in citrus cultivation: biotechnical control against Ceratitis capitata and biological control of Planococcus citri.
The most recent techniques of integrated control were applied in a citrus-growing area (102 ha) of central-eastern Sardinia in 1994-95. Populations of the principal pests, the tephritid Ceratitis capitata and the pseudococcid Planococcus citri, were monitored at 9 stations using pheromone traps. For the control of C. capitata, 25 000 food traps with hydrolysed protein and sugar baits containing with deltamethrin were placed in the field at a rate of 1/plant. While for the control of P. citri, a total of 75 000 individuals of the encyrtid Leptomastix dactylopii and 12 000 individuals of the coccinellid Cryptolaemus montrouzieri were liberated in 5 releases. The use of these control strategies led to a drastic reduction in the use of synthetic insecticides against P. citri. For the control of C. capitata it was necessary to intervene with an adulticide treatment of poisoned protein bait distributed at a district level.