Cultivation of Pinus pinea for pine nut production in Spain, and prospects for Italy.
A brief account is given of the production of pine nuts in southern Spain (and Portugal). Of about 443 949 ha of pine (Pinus pinea) plantations, mainly located in the Guadalquivir valley in Andalucia and over the southern Meseta plateau, only about 39% (175 679 ha) are considered to be natural populations, extant in the mid-19th century. Many plantations have been established from cuttings. Over half of the production is from privately-owned forests (data from the late 1980s). The potential for introducing more intensive, plantation-based cultivation of P. pinea for pine nut production in Italy is discussed.