Armored scale insects (Diaspididae), pests of fruit orchards and their control in the Republic of Georgia.
Several species of Diaspididae are important pests of fruit trees in the Republic of Georgia, namely Quadraspidiotus perniciosus, Parlatoria oleae, Lepidosaphes ulmi, Epidiaspis leperii and Q. ostreaeformis. The first species had 2 annual generations in Georgia, and the second 2-3, while the other species were univoltine. Populations of these pests were regulated to a considerable extent by the predators Chilocorus bipustulatus and C. renipustulatus and by the parasitoids Encarsia perniciosi, Aphytis proclia, A. maculicornis and A. mytilaspidis. Chemical control of the pests is carried out by application of DNOC or mineral oils, which are effective against the overwintering stages, and by organophosphorous or pyrethroid insecticides against the hatching crawlers.