The defence of fruit trees in Albania: problems and prospects.
The major pests and diseases of fruit trees in Albania are listed. The most important fungal pathogens are Venturia inaequalis, V. pirina, Podosphaera leucotricha, Taphrina deformans, T. pruni and Polystigma rubrum, while the main bacterial diseases are crown gall (Agrobacterium tumefaciens) and fire blight (Erwinia amylovora). Notes are given on their injuriousness, economic importance and control. Surveys have been carried out on the identification of virus and virus-like diseases of stone fruits, which have given an insight into the problems they pose and have stimulated the establishment of a national clean stock programme. The major pests include the tortricid Cydia pomonella, the lyonetiid Leucoptera malifoliella, the gracillariid Phyllonorycter blancardella, the tetranychid Panonychus ulmi, the yponomeutid Yponomeuta malinellus, the tenthredinid Hoplocampa minuta, the diaspidid Comstockaspis perniciosa [Comstockaspis perniciosus], the psyllid Psylla pyri [Cacopsylla pyri] and aphids, particularly Myzus persicae, M. cerasi, Eriosoma lanigerum, Dysaphis plantaginea and Aphis pomi. The biology and control of some of these arthropod pests are described. Future control strategies against pests and diseases on fruit trees in Albania are discussed.