Biology and chemical control of Synanthedon cardinalis in the Purepecha Mountains, Michoacan.
Synanthedon cardinalis is a pest of Pinus douglasiana and P. leiophylla (and other pine species) plantations. There are 2 overlapping generations each year, in early spring and autumn. Natural enemies include Hyssopus rhyacioniae, Euderus sp., Horismenus sp. and Lissonota sp. A control treatment which involved removing infested branches and sealing the wound with a paste containing copper sulfate and lime was more effective than parathion-methyl or Gusathion [azinphos-methyl] for controlling the pest. The effect of plantation spacing on attack by S. cardinalis is discussed.