Factors affecting the distribution of pavement ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) in Atlantic coast urban fields.
This study showed that disturbance allows Tetramorium caespitum to thrive on the Atlantic Coast of the USA, e.g. in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. Disturbance creates open, dry habitats similar to the habitats occupied by this ant in its native Eurasia. Disturbance tends to minimize competition by creating habitats too harsh or transient for native species. While this ant can encounter competition in these harsh conditions, it was noted that it competes well in urban fields that are abundant in food resources. [See also Entomological News, 87: 137-139 (1965); Journal of Economic Entomology, 65: 1180-1181 (1972); American Midland Naturalist, 102: 353-362 (1979)].