The Leucopis spp. (Diptera: Chamaemyiidae) introduced for biological control of Pineus sp. (Homoptera: Adelgidae) in Hawaii: implications for biological control of Pineus ?boerneri in Africa.
The species of Leucopis introduced into Hawaii in 1976 and credited with the biological control of Pineus sp. on Pinus is shown to be L. tapiae and not L. obscura as reported hitherto. L. nigraluna, imported from Pakistan in 1972, is also confirmed as established on Kaui and possibly also on Hawaii Island. These, and other biological control introductions of L. tapiae against Pineus spp. on Pinus, are discussed in relation to the ongoing programme for control of Pineus ?boerneri on Pinus in Africa. It is suggested that the other 2 common European species, L. obscura and L. atratula, are primarily predators of Adelges spp. on Abies spp. and are so unlikely to be effective against Pineus, and it is concluded that L. tapiae, already detected in Malawi, is the most promising European species of Leucopis for biological control of this pest. Further, it is suggested that, if other introductions are needed, priority should be given to L. atrifacies from North America and 2 Asian species, L. nigraluna and L. manii, all of them only known from Pineus spp. on Pinus.