On the ecology and ethology of Haematoloma dorsatum (Ahrens) (Homoptera, Cercopidae).
The ecology and ethology of Haematoloma dorsatum is described from several years of field study in Italy. Eggs were laid mainly on grasses, mostly Gramineae [Poaceae], at ground level and in dead tissue. Nymphs emerged during early Autumn and remained at the base of grass stems protected by a frothy secretion. The larvae of some Diptera were able to penetrate this protective barrier and prey on nymphs. In general, most nymphs became adults from the end of May to the end of June. Adults flew to Pinaceae and Cupressaceae to feed on needles, entering stylets through openings in the stomata. Various types of damage to needles on each host are described. Environmental conditions which result in population increases of H. dorsatum are also described as well as criteria for preventing and controlling outbreaks.