Potato pest management.
CIP has devised a strategy to develop and implement integrated pest management (IPM) to overcome some constraints that prevent farmers in CIP's area of influence from adopting IPM practice. IPM development is divided into 5 distinct phases: pest problem assessment, development of management components, integration of key components, implementation in pilot areas, and large-scale implementation. Particular emphasis is placed on farmers' perspectives when assessing pest problems and implementing IPM pilot areas as a practical alternative for farmers. Experience in developing IPM programmes for the potato tuber moth [the gelechiid Phthorimaea operculella], the Andean potato weevil [? Premnotrypes], and the leafminer fly [the agromyzid Liriomyza huidobrensis] as key pests demonstrates that the relative weight of IPM components is partly problem-specific, and that social and economic factors may determine the practical value of the various technological components, including the use of resistant cultivars. The strategy described here can be applied to conditions in both industrialized and developing countries.