Establishment and spread of Gyranusoidea tebygi Noyes and Anagyrus mangicola Noyes (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae), two biological control agents released against the mango mealybug Rastrococcus invadens Williams (Homoptera: Pseudococcidae) in Africa.
Two specific endophagous parasitoids, Gyranusoidea tebygi and Anagyrus mangicola, of Indian origin, were mass-reared in Cotonou, Benin, and released against Rastrococcus invadens. G. tebygi was released in Benin, Gabon, Ghana, Nigeria, Sierra Leone and Zaire. In Togo, it had been released earlier and studied during another project. It is stated that this parasitoid is now established in all areas infested by R. invadens. In addition, it established itself without previous release in Congo and Cote d'Ivoire. A. mangicola has been released in Benin, Gabon and Sierra Leone since 1991, and by mid-1993 was recovered from a few sites. It seemed locally established in southern Benin.