Bionomics of coconut scale - a main pest insect on Actinidia and its control.
In studies in Hunan, China, Temnaspidiotus destructor [Aspidiotus destructor] produced 3 generations annually, with the fertilized female overwintering on the stem of Actinidia trees. The sex ratio (females to males) was 1:1.04. Oviposition began in early to mid-April. The average total eggs laid by one female in each generation was 32-42 eggs. At room temperature (26-28°C), the egg stage lasted for 5 days, the larval stage lasted 17 days, the pre-oviposition stage in adult females lasted 25 days, the female generation lasted 44 days and the male generation lasted 38 days. The development zero for females and males was 10.49 and 8.68°C, resp. The effective accumulated temperature was 755.89 day-degrees for females and 727.6 day-degrees for males. Important natural enemies were Aphytis sp., Chilocorus chalybeatus and beetles. During the larval outbreak period, methamidophos (800x) produced >90% mortality.