Bioecological studies on orientalis yellow scale (Aonidiella orientalis New.) and its control by integrated methods in Fars province.
A survey of citrus orchards in Fars province, Iran, in 1986-89 established that there were 5 generations of Aonidiella orientalis per year, with the maximum population density in the 4th and 5th generations. Reproduction was most frequently viviparous, but oviparous and ovoviviparous reproduction were also observed. Chemical control of this pest is thought inadvisable, although spray application of a 4% solution of oil [of unspecified composition] was recommended. The natural enemies, Chilocorus bipustulatus, Cybocephalus sp. and Encarsia aurantii were thought to be important for biological control, and pruning lower stalks and water management were also useful in controlling A. orientalis.