The biology of Canada thistle (Cirsium arvense).
This review updates earlier brief reviews on C. arvense and includes important new or recent information on its biology. The information is presented in 2 subsections, based on research done from 2 different perspectives. In the 1st section, the biology of C. arvense is reviewed from the older natural history or physiological ecology perspective, while the 2nd section considers information on C. arvense population biology. This latter section includes information on the impact of parasites and microorganisms on survival, and lists insects, nematodes and fungi found on C. arvense.