Characterization of three continuous cell lines from marine fish.
Three continuous cell lines were established: JSKG from gonads of Japanese striped knife jaw Oplegnathus fasciatus, KRE from embryos of a hybrid of kelp Epinephelus moara and red spotted grouper E. akaara, and PAS from the skin of greater amberjack (also called purplish amberjack) Seriola dumerili; these cell lines were passed 60, 89, 120 times, respectively. Although initially cultured in Leibovitz's L-15 medium, two of the cell lines, JSKG and PAS, exhibited optimum growth response in Eagle's minimum essential medium buffered with a combination of tris and sodium bicarbonate. These cell lines were initiated at a higher NaCl concentration of 0.206 M but gradually adapted to the low NaCl concentration of 0.116 M after several subcultures. Optimum growth temperature was 25°C for JSKG and PAS cells, and 30°C for KRE cells. The modal chromosome number is 83 for the JSKG cell line, 92 for the KRE cell line, and 96 for the PAS cell line. Results for efficiency of plating indicate that all three cell lines are composed of transformed cells. Cell lines JSKG and PAS are susceptible to 9 fish viruses, including channel catfish virus (CCV) and chum salmon virus (CSV). The KRE cell line is susceptible to CCV and fish rhabdoviruses of the vesiculovirus group. None of the cells showed cytopathic effect for Oncorhynchus masou virus (OMV) or Herpesvirus salmonis. Yields of infectious pancreatic necrosis virus (IPNV), infectious haematopoietic necrosis virus (IHNV) hirame rhabdovirus (HRV), and CSV were relatively low in these cell lines.