Biological control of Liriomyza leafminers in the Pacific Basin.
The importance of Liriomyza in the Pacific Basin has increased with the introduction of L. trifolii and L. sativae to many islands since 1980. They are predominantly pests of vegetables and ornamental plants. Numerous parasitoids have been introduced into Hawaii for Liriomyza control, and those providing a high level of control have been introduced into Guam, Pohnpei [Ponape] and Tonga. Research indicates that a complex of natural enemies is needed to provide control, and that the species in the complex vary between crops. One of the most successful parasitoids introduced into Hawaii is Ganaspidium utilis, which quickly made an impact on leafminer densities, competing with previously established parasitoids.