Biological control of agricultural pests in Brazil.
An historical account is presented of biological control of agricultural pests and integrated pest control in Brazil since 1921. A list is given of parasitoids and their hosts, crop, country of origin and year of introduction into Brazil with details of the form of introduction. A partial list is given of natural enemies (parasitoids, predators and pathogens) and their prey. The pseudococcid grass pest Antonina graminis was successfully controlled by releases since 1967 of the encyrtid parasitoid Neodusmetia sangwani. The pyralid Diatraea saccharalis and species of the cercopid genus Mahanarva attacking sugarcane were controlled exclusively by their respective antagonists, the braconid parasitoid Apanteles flavipes [Cotesia flavipes] and the fungus Metarhizium anisopliae. The noctuid soyabean pest Anticarsia gemmatalis was controlled by the fungus Nomuraea rileyi and a fungus specific to A. gemmatalis..