Bacterial diseases of wheat in the warmer areas - reality or myth?
The distribution of bacterial diseases of wheat and triticale is outlined and the variability among pathogens collected during 3 years from different traditional and nontraditional wheat growing locations is analysed. Xanthomonas campestris pv. undulosa, the causal agent of bacterial leaf streak, was identified as the major potential bacterial threat in warmer areas, while a new disease, bacterial sheath brown rot, caused by Pseudomonas fascovaginae, was identified. Seed detection methods, including the use of dilution plating assay and monoclonal antibodies, are reviewed and the effectiveness of bacteriocide treatments is evaluated. The climatic factors affecting transmission rate and symptom expression are studied with the aim of clarifying the disease cycle and to characterize disease-prone areas.