The divided world of the Bolivian Andes: a structural view of domination and resistance.
By incorporating political and ideological elements into a modes-of-production analysis, the book seeks to provide a structural understanding of the ongoing clash of two cultures in the Bolivian Andes. The most recent rebellion of the indigenous side was that which resulted in the 1953 agrarian reform. This brought about the dissolution of the hacienda system of economic and political control which resulted in the detachment of indigenous labour from any process of labour relating to the capitalist mode of production as long as he or she physically stayed in the indigenous zone. For most, capitalist social relations remained alien. Left on its own, the indigenous population became, for the most part, a class of smallholding agriculturalists tending to self-sufficiency. The Bolivian state, acting from economic imperatives after the decline of mining in the early 1980s, sought to displace the non-capitalist peasantry with commercial farming. Demonstrating that the post-1953 era of indigenous population and Bolivian government cooperation had truly ended, a new indigenous leadership rejected the attempts at displacement. The Katarista movement in general, and the leadership of the Confederación Sindical Unica de Trabajadores (CSUTCB) in particular led the indigenous opposition, forcefully refusing the imposition of 'development' that would result in the demise of the indigenous population as a separate social entity. The chapter reviews the political history of Bolivia in the pre-1952 era, structurally examines the political situation following the revolution and analyses the structural change and type of economic articulation brought about by the 1953 agrarian land reform.