Cryptosporidiosis in zoo and pet birds.
Cases of cryptosporidial infections in zoo and pet birds submitted to the State Veterinary Diagnostic Laboratory, Auburn, Alabama, USA, from necropsy or histopathologic examination, are reviewed. Infections were identified in cockatiels, white-lored euphonias (Euphonia cheysopasta), bronze mannikin finches (Lonchura cucullata), and Australian diamond firetailed finches (Staganoplura bella). Infections in the cockatiels occurred mostly in the small intestine, but parasites were also observed in the oesophageal glands, air sacs, and proventriculus of some birds. Separate cases of small intestinal and proventricular infections were identified in the white-lored euphonias. Cryptosporidial parasites were found only in the proventriculus of the bronze mannikin finches and Australian diamond firetail finches. No cases of renal cryptosporidiosis were observed. Co-pathogens or other disease conditions were present in all birds. The Cryptosporidium species responsible for causing proventricular infection in zoo and pet birds may be different from C. meleagridis and C. baileyi.