Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

Abstract

Thaumetopoea pityocampa (Den. & Schiff.) in Italy. Bionomics and perspectives of integrated control.

Abstract

The main food plants of Thaumetopoea pityocampa in Italy are Pinus nigra, P. sylvestris, P. halepensis and P. radiata. In some stands in the eastern Alps population cycles of the thaumetopoeid seemed to be well correlated with the pattern of adult emergence, sex ratio and percentage of individuals which underwent a prolonged diapause. Knowledge of these parameters permitted a satisfactory forecast of outbreaks. It was shown in the case of P. nigra that needles grown after defoliation did not provide adequate food for the larvae. Natural enemies, including birds, Phryxe caudata, Ooencyrtus pityocampae and Eutetrastichus servadeii, had an irregular distribution and in general afforded effective control only during the years following an outbreak. Integrated control involved a sampling programme, tolerance levels, silvicultural management and chemical control measures.