Hot-water immersion treatment for mangoes infested with Anastrepha fraterculus, A. obliqua, and Ceratitis capitata (Diptera: Tephritidae) in Brazil.
'Tommy Atkins', 'Haden' and 'Keith' mangoes (Mangifera indica) were subjected to hot-water treatment at 45.9-46.3°C to determine the mortality of eggs and larvae of 3 tephritid species that infest mangoes in Brazil. Probit analysis of the data estimated the immersion time needed to achieve probit 9 (99.9968%) mortality for eggs and larvae as 39.7 and 68.5 min, resp., for Anastrepha fraterculus, 65.7 and 65.2 min for A. obliqua, and 59.4 and 79.7 min for Ceratitis capitata. Differences in time-mortality relations among these species were small. An estimated population of 45 108 larvae (mostly 3rd instar) of A. fraterculus and 15 705 of C. capitata were subjected to hot-water immersion at 45.9-46.3°C for 90 min with no survivors.