Studies on integrated control in a newly established citrus orchard in Çukurova.
Studies on the complex of pests and their natural enemies in a newly established citrus orchard in Çukurova, Turkey, were carried out in 1977 and 1983-86. Aonidiella aurantii, which had been introduced during the establishment of the orchard, was a major pest. The only control measure used against this diaspidid was mineral oil applied once in early summer and once in winter, in order to encourage the activity of natural enemies. Specific acaricides were applied against Phyllocoptruta oleivora and a partial bait-spray against the tephritid Ceratitis capitata, both of which occurred sporadically, but the other pests observed (Aphis citricola [A. spiraecola], the margarodid Icerya purchasi, the pseudococcid Planococcus citri and the coccid Ceroplastes floridensis) were kept at low levels by predatory Coleoptera and Neuroptera.