Integrated pest management of the nun moth, Lymantria monacha (Lepidoptera: Lymantriidae) in Denmark.
In Denmark, the nun moth (Lymantria monacha) has been intensively studied since 1970 when a series of outbreaks occurred, mainly on Norway spruce (Picea abies), Sitka spruce (P. sitchensis), Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) and lodgepole pine (P. contorta), although shrubs and deciduous trees have also been defoliated. Several aspects of the basic ecology and the nutritional ecology have been studied, and chemical, microbial and behavioural control measures have been tested and are reported. Monitoring systems using pheromone-baited traps, sampling numbers of females on tree stems, and collecting larval frass on sticky boards have been evaluated. Based on this knowledge, a tentative control plan for new outbreaks is briefly described.