Investigations on the occurrence of natural enemies of San Jose scale, Quadraspidiotus perniciosus Comstock (Hemiptera: Coccidae) in Jammu & Kashmir and Himachal Pradesh.
Extensive field surveys in India revealed that 4 species of parasitoids, (a species of the Aphytis proclia group Azotus? perspeciosus, Encarsia perniciosi and Teleterebratus perversus?) and 4 species of predators (Chilocorus bijugus, Coccinella septempunctata, Pharoscymnus flexibilis and Sticholotis marginalis) were among the effective natural enemies of Quadraspidiotus perniciosus in Jammu and Kashmir, while in Himachal Pradesh only one species of parasitoid (a species of the Aphytis proclia group) and 3 predators (C. bijugus, C. septempunctata and P. flexibilis) were reported attacking the pest. Azotus perspeciosus and T. ? perversus are reported for the first time from India. Field surveys also revealed that 4 species of exotic predatory beetles (Chilocorus kuwanae, Cybocephalus gibbulus, Lindorus lophanthae [Rhyzobius lophanthae] and Sticholotis madagassa), released previously in both states were absent, showing their non-establishment.