Stubborn diseases of citrus caused by Spiroplasma citri.
The geographical distribution, economic importance, symptoms, cause, diagnosis, epidemiology, transmission and control of stubborn disease of citrus is discussed. Leafhoppers, especially Circulifer tenellus, are important vectors of S. citri. Disease spread is prevalent in young trees and moves into the citrus crop from surrounding fields. Tree-to-tree spread is limited. S. citri can be transmitted by grafting using infected bud wood and can move from infected rootstocks into healthy scion grafts. Methods of disease control are considered and recommendations for disease management listed.