Cosmocerca panamaensis sp. n. (Nemata: Cosmocercidae) from the Panamanian poison-arrow frog, Dendrobates pumilio Schmidt, 1857, with a discussion of prodelphy, the type species and family authorship in Cosmocerca Diesing, 1861.
Cosmocerca panamaensis sp. nov. is described from the small intestine of D. pumilio from Panama. Males differ from all other Cosmocerca males by having 3 pairs of tuberculate papillae surrounding the anal opening. The amphidelphic condition is described for the females of C. panamaensis and it is noted that the prodelphic condition is an erroneous character of the genus. Paracosmocerca spinocerca is transferred to Cosmocerca as C. spinocerca comb. nov. This is the first record of Cosmocerca from Central America. The superfamily, family, and subfamily names Cosmocercoidea, Cosmocercidae, and Cosmocercinae, respectively, are credited to the authorship Railliet, 1916.