Preliminary survey of insects attacking jojoba in southern Israel and of their natural enemies.
The pests of jojoba (Simmondsia chinensis) and their natural enemies were surveyed in Israel in 1981, 1982 and 1984. In the nursery, the roots of cuttings were attacked by the pseudococcid Planococcus citri, while in the field, young and fruit-yielding plants were attacked by Aphis fabae and the apid Megachile sp. Fruits were attacked by Noctuidae, mainly Heliothis sp., but without economic damage. Older, well-established plants were infested by the diaspidid Aspidiotus hederae [A. nerii]. Populations of this pest had 3 peaks during the year, in the spring, mid-summer and autumn. The population decrease during the summer was attributed mainly to the coccinellid predator Lindorus lophanthae [Rhyzobius lophanthae], but the aphelinid parasitoid Aphytis sp. was also present. Aspidiotus nerii is considered to be a potentially severe pest of jojoba in Israel. The phytotoxicity of 0.3% cypermethrin (Cymbush 10 EC), 0.2% chlorpyrifos (Pyrinex 48 EC), 0.06% pirimicarb (Piromor 50 WP), 0.2% cyhexatin (Plictran 25 WP) and 0.2% methidathion (Supracide 40 EC) to jojoba plants was tested. None of these insecticides was phytotoxic.