The mosquitoes of the subgenus Culex in southwestern Asia and Egypt (Diptera: Culicidae).
Twenty species of Culex of the subgenus Culex are recognised in southwestern Asia (the land south of the USSR between the Mediterranean Sea and the Indus River of Pakistan, including all of Asian Turkey, the Arabian Peninsula and Cyprus) and Egypt: C. pipiens, C. quinquefasciatus, C. vagans, C. torrentium, C. decens, C. antennatus, C. univittatus, C. perexiguus, C. theileri, C. laticinctus, C. mattinglyi, C. simpsoni, C. sinaiticus, C. duttoni, C. sitiens, C. poicilipes, C. mimeticus, C. bitaeniorhynchus, C. tritaeniorhynchus and C. pseudovishnui. Keys, descriptions and illustrations are provided for the identification of the adults, pupae and larvae of each species. Keys are also included for the genera of mosquitoes and the subgenera of Culex occurring in the region. The individual treatment of each species also includes a complete synonymy, a summary of previous literature, a systematic discussion, information on bionomics and distribution, and a synopsis of material examined. Lectotype specimens are designated for C. decens, C. simpsoni, C. duttoni, and 16 junior synonyms. A neotype specimen is designated for C. bitaeniorhynchus. Six new junior synonyms are recognized: C. alpha (= C. theileri); C. calloti, C. erectus and C. torridus (= C. pipiens); C. ethiopicus (= C. bitaeniorhynchus); and C. mauritanicus (= C. simpsoni). The recognised species are arranged into 3 groups and 10 subgroups. The C. duttoni group and the C. decens and C. simpsoni subgroups are recognised for the first time.