Cereal aphids as an applied problem.
The applied problem presented by aphids that infest cereals, in particular, how best to reduce their abundance and forecast their effect on the production of grain, is reviewed. Information is provided on the distribution and pest status of the 7 most common cereal aphid species (Metopolophium dirhodum, Rhopalosiphum padi, Sitobion avenae, Diuraphis noxia, R. maidis, Schizaphis graminum and Sitobion miscanthi) and on the colonization, population increase (especially with regard to plant resistance), natural enemies and sampling of cereal aphids in general. The effects of aphids on the yield of cereals are considered and long- and short-term forecasting of aphid abundance, economic thresholds, forecasting of yield losses and aphid control based on forecasting are discussed. The role and significance of aphids as vectors of virus diseases of cereals are not considered.