Pesticides for the protection of vineyards.
Results currently being obtained on the chemical control of pests of grapevine in the USSR are recorded and discussed. Of the pests concerned, phylloxera [Viteus vitifoliae] is controlled by hexachlorobutadiene fumigation at overall rates of 200-700 kg/ha, giving 92-100% control and substantially increasing yields. Furadan [carbofuran] in a 10% granular formulation applied to the soil at 100 kg/ha is as effective, although not yet recommended for commercial use. Against the European grape moth [Lobesia botrana], 10 preparations have given 92-100% control, and these are listed with their rates of application. Of these, the pyrethroids (Ambush [permethrin] and Ripcord [cypermethrin]) are long-lasting, require fewer applications then other groups of compounds and are effective against populations resistant to organochlorine and organophosphorus compounds. Against the spider mite [Tetranychus urticae], Plictran [cyhexatin] at 1.6-2.4 kg/ha, Mitran [a mixture of chlorfenethol and chlorfenson] at 2-3 kg ha or Omite [propargite] at 1.6-2.4 kg/ha (normally in 1000 litres liquid/ha) are recorded as having proved particularly effective, giving more or less 100% control after 20 days, the strongly but not exclusively ovicidal cyhexatin being especially promising, and effective against otherwise resistant mites. Six other preparations, which are listed together with their rates of application, also gave 94-100% control after 20 days.