Integrated pest management in plantation crops.
Integrated management of the insect pests of coconut, cashew, pepper and cocoa was reviewed in a paper presented at a workshop on insect pest management strategies in coffee, cardamom and tea cropping systems held in India in 1986. Treatment of breeding sites with insecticides and release of predators and pathogens such as the reduviid Platymeris laevicollis and the fungus Metarhizium anisopliae may be used for the control of the scarabaeid Oryctes rhinoceros on coconuts. The Baculovirus of O. rhinoceros is a successful microbial control agent which occurs naturally in Kerala. The xyloryctid Opisina arenosella, also on coconuts, is attacked by parasitoids such as the braconids Apanteles taragamae and Bracon hebetor, the bethylid Goniozus nephantidis, Elasmus nephantidis, the eulophid Trichospilus pupivora, the chalcidids Brachymeria nosatoi, B. nephantidis, B. lasus, B. hime attevae and Antrocephalus hakonensis and the ichneumonids Xanthopimpla punctata, X. nana nana and Xanthopimpla sp. and predators including the carabids Parena nigrolineata and Calleida splendidula, the reduviid Sphedanolestes aurescens and many spider species. The curculionid Rhynchophorus ferrugineus may be controlled by prophylactic treatment of wounds and integrated control incorporating cultural methods and the application of insecticides such as heptachlor and BHC [HCH] may be used against the scarabaeid Leucopholis coneophora. Control of the cerambycid Plocaederus ferrugineus on cashew trees may be achieved by the early application of HCH and the adoption of phytosanitary methods. The mirid Helopeltis antonii is controlled by 3 insecticide sprays, at the emergence of new flushes, panicles and fruit setting. The chrysomelid Longitarsus nigripennis may be controlled on pepper [Piper nigrum] by soil application of insecticides, cultural methods and spraying with endosulfan and quinalphos. On cocoa, spot applications of fenthion or monocrotophos (at 0.05%) and the release of the coccinellid predator Cryptolaemus montrouzieri can be used against Pseudococcus lilacinus [Planococcus lilacinus] and Pseudococcus citri [Planococcus citri].