Biological control of coffee pests.
The biological control of major pests of coffee in India is discussed in a paper presented at a workshop on insect pest management strategies in coffee, cardamom and tea cropping systems. The lycaenid Spalgis epius, the coccinellid Pullus pallidicollis [Pseudoscymnus pallidicollis] and the cecidomyiid Triommata coccidivora are predators of the pseudococcids Planococcus citri and P. lilacinus. The coccinellid predator Cryptolaemus montrouzieri and the encyrtid parasitoid Leptomastix dactylopii have been introduced for the control of P. citri. The coccid Coccus viridis is attacked by several indigenous natural enemies including the coccinellid predator Chilocorus nigrita and the entomogenous fungi Verticillium lecanii and Empusa lecanii [Entomophthora lecanii]. The cerambycid Xylotrechus quadripes is parasitized by the braconid Allorhogas pallidiceps. The natural enemies of Eupterote canaraica and E. fabia include the entomogenous fungus Beauveria bassiana. The pseudococcids Ferrisia virgata and Nipaecoccus viridis and the agromyzid Tropicomyia are naturally controlled by different parasitoid species.