Scale insects and mealybugs on coffee, tea and cardamom and their natural enemies.
Species of coccoids which have been recorded as pests of coffee, tea and cardamom in India are reviewed with reference to their status and natural enemies. The main pest species on coffee are Planococcus citri, P. lilacinus, P. ficus, Coccus viridis and Saissetia coffeae. The encyrtid Leptomastix dactylopii has been introduced for the control of P. citri. Forty-four species of coccoids have been recorded on tea, of which Fiorinia theae, Eriochiton theae and Phenacaspis manni [Pseudaulacaspis manni] are known to be pest species. The 1st of these species has been controlled by its parasitoids in Assam. S. coffeae and Planococcus sp. also occur as pests of cardamom, the latter being parasitized by Aphidencyrtus sp.