Major pests of man-made forests in Israel: origin, biology, damage and control.
The biology, damage caused by and control of important pests of 3 main tree genera, Pinus, Cupressus and Eucalyptus, in Israel are reviewed. The main pests of pine are the margarodid Matsucoccus josephi, the thaumetopoeid Thaumetopoea wilkinsoni, the scolytids Orthotomicus erosus, Pityogenes calcaratus and Tomicus destruens [Hylurgus destruens] and the tortricid Rhyaciona buoliana thurificana. The main cypress pests are the scolytids Phloeosinus armatus and P. aubei while the cerambycid Phoracantha semipunctata is the main pest of eucalyptus. All of these species are endemic, except P. aubei, and have maintained themselves in natural relic stands. Natural enemies combined with appropriate cultural control measures are sufficient to control all these species except T. wilkinsoni. Aerial sprays with endosulfan, diflubenzuron and Bacillus thuringiensis are used for the control of this pest.