Planting podocarps in disturbed indigenous forests of the central North Island.
An outline is given of the objectives and methods used in recent years to establish nursery-raised podocarps (Dacrydium cupressinum, Dacrycarpus [Podocarpus] dacrydioides, P. totara, P. spicatus, P. ferrugineus and Phyllocladus trichomanoides) on forest, scrub and open sites of the central North Island volcanic plateau. D. cupressinum has been the most widely used species because of its persistence and ability to grow on a range of sites in competition with shrubby regrowth and in the presence of introduced mammals. The technique recommended for logged forest is planting of small clusters of large seedlings in canopy gaps at intervals which allow selection of the most suitable microsites. A similar group planting technique is recommended for those scrub sites where the prospects for natural regeneration are poor. On more open sites, planting pioneer indigenous or exotic species as a first step is recommended to provide some shelter. If good quality nursery stock is used and unfavourable microsites are avoided, high survival can be obtained on sheltered sites. Early growth is slow on these upland sites. Where regrowth is vigorous, annual releasing is recommended for the first 4-5 yr.