Causes of damage to some wild mango fruit trees in Zambia.
The causes of damage to some wild or semi-wild mango fruit trees in Zambia were recorded. Insects caused the most obvious damage. The most common insects found were the Coccoidea, including the diaspidids Aspidiotus hederae auct. [A. nerii] and Lepidosaphes sp. and the coccid Coccus hesperidum. Some Coccoidea were responsible for secreting honeydew on which sooty mould grew. Various heteropteran pests such as the mirid Helopeltis schoutedeni caused leaf spots and fruit cankers. The most common dipteran recorded was the tephritid Pardalaspis cosyra [Ceratitis cosyra] which was mainly responsible for damage to the fruits of late maturing varieties. Drosophila spp. was common on over-ripe fruits. Larvae of the tortricid Argyroploce leucotreta [Cryptophlebia leucotreta] attacked fruits and, to a lesser extent, leaves. Other unidentified larvae of Lepidoptera were also observed on the leaves, but were of minor importance. Larvae of the curculionid Sternochaetus mangiferae were widespread and infested the kernels in a high proportion of mango seeds. A bostrichid Apate monachus had previously been reported attacking mango. Isoptera damage was also noticed on small mango trees.