Braconid parasitoids of Tephritidae (Diptera) infesting coffee and other fruits in West-Central Africa.
Tephritids and their parasites were reared from coffee and other fruits collected in Cameroon and Togo in 1981-82 during a survey of potential biological control agents to be used against Ceratitis capitata in Costa Rica. Collections yielded large numbers of the braconids Opius perproximus, Biosteres caudatus and a 2nd species of Biosteres. Other parasites collected were B. fullawayi, B. desideratus and Opius sp. Parasitism rates in tephritids in coffee ranged from 10 to 56%, with an average of 35% in a research plantation and 17% in a commercial plantation. Parasitism in other fruits, which included Cucurbita pepo subsp. melopepo, C. pepo subsp. medullosa, cucumbers, Capsicum frutescens subsp. grossum, grapefruits, mangoes, guava and Cola spp., was less than 5%. The most commonly reared tephritids from coffee were Trirhithrum coffeae and Ceratitis anonae [Pterandrus anonae]. Adults of C. capitata were rarely observed; this tephritid occurred only in low frequency in coffee. Observations on the food-plants and parasites of other species reared, including Dacus bivittatus, D. ciliatus [Didacus ciliatus], C. colae [P. colae], Ceratitis spp. in the C. cosyra group and a species referred to as T. nigerrimum auct., are also presented.