Survey of Lymantria obfuscata and its natural enemies in India.
A survey conducted between 1961 and 1966 in 3 sites in Kashmir and Himachal Pradesh, India, revealed that the larvae of Lymantria obfuscata fed upon leaves of Populus spp., Salix spp., Quercus spp., Alnus nitida and false acacia (Robinia pseudacacia) and caused damage to apples, pears, plums, cherries, mulberries, walnuts and roses when their numbers were high. Observations on the mating and oviposition behaviour of the adults and development of the immature stages are given. The lifespan of adult virgin females was 2-4 days, of mated females 2-5 days and of males 2-9 days. Larvae were parasitized by 12 species of braconids (Apanteles spp. and Rogas spp.), 1 eulophid, 3 ichneumonids, 12 tachinids (including Exorista spp. and Palexorista spp.) and 3 sarcophagids. Pupae were parasitized by 3 species of chalcidids (Brachymeria spp.), 7 of ichneumonids and 1 torymid. Eggs were parasitized by 2 species of eupelmids (of which Anastatus kashmirensis was the most common), 1 encyrtid and 1 eulophid. Nine species of hyperparasite were reared from these parasitoids. Two species of dermestid were observed preying upon eggs, and 6 carabids and 1 prionocerid upon larvae. A nematode (probably Agamermis sp.) was also recorded parasitizing larvae. A nuclear polyhedrosis virus caused mortality of larvae in the field. Information on the incidence and biology of some of these natural enemies is given. Comparisons are made with the complex of parasites attacking L. dispar in North America.