Notes on life history and field efficiency of Cybocephalus fodori predator of Quadraspidiotus perniciosus in northern Greece.
Sampling in 1978-79 and 1981-82 in 2 almond orchards heavily infested by Quadraspidiotus perniciosus in northern Greece revealed a high pest mortality that was largely due to natural enemies, especially insect predators. Cybocephalus fodori appeared to be the main predator. It formed adult aggregations for overwintering and resumed activity by the end of March. With abundant prey available, it had 2 complete and 1 partial generation a year. Under controlled conditions of 23-27°C, 60-70% RH and 16 h light daily, the larval stage was completed in about 19 days and the pupal stage in about 10 days. Each larva of C. fodori killed on average 68 adult females of Q. perniciosus. Individually deposited eggs and young larvae of C. fodori were found under the scale of Q. perniciosus, which gave them some protection from insecticide sprays. C. fodori appears to be a good biological control agent that would be suitable for use in an integrated control programme for fruit orchards in northern Greece.