The groundnut aphid. Biology and control.
Information is given on the morphology of Aphis craccivora, on the factors affecting population development such as climatic conditions, natural enemies and the formation of alates, the direct and indirect damage caused by this aphid to groundnut through sap removal, irritant and toxic effect, deposition of honeydew, development of sooty mould and transmission of rosette virus. Crop protection methods are reviewed, comprising infestation forecasts (based on the results of direct observation of crops, catches in various types of traps and interpretation of meteorological data) and aphid control by means of early and dense sowing, cultivation of resistant groundnut varieties and chemical treatment. The importance is stressed of an early-warning system (indicating the intensity of future attacks and the probable need of chemical intervention) in tropical countries, where spraying is difficult owing to water shortage.